Physical description: Andorians are of average humanoid height and weight. The skin is light blue. They have two large antennae extending from their heads, which supplement their other sensory organs.
General tendencies: Andorians can be quite emotional at times. In general, they do not like to be denied what they ask for.
Physical description: Bajorans are of average humanoid height and weight. They are generally marked by stripe-like ridges on their noses, and they can be seen wearing earrings of religious significance (see below) on their right ears.
General tendencies: Bajorans are strong-willed people, molded by their experiences during the Cardassian occupation. At the same time, they are deeply religious, worshipping figures known as the Prophets, who are beings capable of comprehending events beyond linear time and who reside in the Bajoran Wormhole, leading to the Gamma Quadrant. As a result, if they are convinced that something is the will of the Prophets, it is highly unlikely they would change their mind about it. They abhor Cardassians.
Social structure: Bajorans have a system of gender equality, with members of each gender eligible for all kinds of governmental, religious, and social positions. On the other hand, while they abandoned it decades ago, Bajor used to maintain a caste system known as the d'jarras, under which the professions of each member in society was strictly regulated and hereditary. The system still leaves a vestige in the minds of some people who wish for its return. Further, the Bajorans have great reverence for their religious figures: the Kai (the religious leader of Bajor) and the Vedeks (religious administrators). Due to the Cardassian occupation, they do not trust outworlders easily, but once they are sure of the outworlder's sincerity, they will abandon their preconceptions.
Physical description: Benzites are slightly shorter than average humanoids. Their skin is grey with streaks of other colors blended in. Their skin is fairly hard. Their ears are positioned higher, and are larger, than most humanoids. They have no hair on their heads. There are four follicle-like extensions from their lips. Since the normal class-M atmosphere lacks certain trace gases needed by Benzites, when away from their home planet, Benzites wear breathing apparati that extends from their chests up to just inches away from their noses, releasing those trace gases. All Benzites from a particular geological extraction have identical physical experiences, although Benzites are themselves capable of picking up minute differences.
General tendencies: Benzites are highly intelligent and generally make highly competent officers. At the same time, though, they will try to let everyone around know about their superior abilities, and try to make suggestions for improvement for every flaw they perceive. They also try to correct problems that they see without requesting help from others.
Physical characteristics: Betazoids are of average humanoid height and weight. In many ways, they appear as Terrans do. However, they have larger than average humanoid-size irises in their eyes, and their eyes are generally green or gray. Betazoids develop powerful empathic abilities at times of adolescence, allowing them to sense other people's emotions or even exact thoughts.
General tendencies: Betazoids prize emotions greatly, and spend a lot of times sensing their own emotions in addition to other people's. They often act based on the emotions that they sense around them, rather than actions or words of other people. The are more willing than average humanoids to changing their opinions to fit the evidence presented, and generally prefer negotiations over direct confrontations. Betazoids enjoy many kinds of art and entertainment, including theater and music.
Social structure: Betazoids no longer have a caste-based society, but great houses still exist, and while the members of the houses technically enjoy no privilege above other Betazoids, socially, the great houses have a high place in the minds of the Betazoid people.
Physical characteristics: Bolians are about average humanoid height, and slightly heavier than the average humanoid. They are entirely blue, due to their blood blood and translucent skin. Males have no hair on their heads, and both genders have a facial ridge that runs from the back of the head all the way over the head to the nose.
General tendencies: On the outside, Bolians seem very confident and relaxed in what they do. They tend to be big talkers, able to conjure up a conversation about any subject. On the inside, though, they can be insecure and nervous when put into pressure situations.
Physical characteristics: Bynars are on the low-end of the humanoid height/weight spectrum. They are telepathically bound in pairs at birth, and the association is lifelong. Pairs of Bynars always perform all activities together, and they are not capable of separation by more than 5 or 6 feet. Bynars do not have gender as such, and are without any hair. They have computer implants on their heads that facilitate their binding, and also keep them connected at all times with the central computer system on Bynaus, their home planet. Their activities are heavily regulated by the computer on Bynaus, and if the connection runs into problems, they will not survive long.
General tendencies: Bynars tend to see things in binary form -- either as true or false, with little consideration for shades of gray in between. Bynars tend to be quiet with others, but communicate among themselves at an extremely high rate that other species are incapable of comprehending at.
Social structure: Bynars' lives are highly regulated, optimized for maximum benefit to Bynar society. As forementioned, they have no genders, and they also do not have class hierarchies.
Physical characteristics: Caitians are a humanoid race that appear to be cat-like. They have a thick hide with various different kinds of hair color, with the most common being a golden brown. They have a fairly lengthy tail. They have superior hearing, capable of hearing many kinds of waves that are outside normal humanoid hearing range, and are fairly perceptive with the eyes even when the lighting is low. They move much faster than most humanoids, but have limited endurance for pain.
Social structure: Caitians have fairly much achieved gender equality.
General tendencies: Caitians evolved from a carnivorous, hunting heritage, and continues to have some kinds of hunting instincts. They enjoy running and other sports that require high manueverability. They prize individual freedom, and do not easily yield to what they see as encroachment on it.
Physical characteristics: Terrans are of average humanoid height and weight. They have smooth faces and hair over their head. Males have copious amounts of facial hair, but most shave it off. Otherwise, Terrans are very much like the average humanoid appearance-wise.
General tendencies: Terrans may be the most diverse culture in the Federation, and it is difficult to summarize Terran tendencies. Nevertheless, in general, there are a few commonalities. Terrans tend to be emotional, and do not work well with logical thinking. They are of milder temperament than many other humanoid species due to the history of peace that has lasted since the 21st century. Nevertheless, Terrans do have the potential to become agitated.
Social structure: Terran families have several models, but the most prevalent one involves one male and one female joining in a marriage, with or without procreation. Children live with their parents until they become adults. While Terrans have guaranteed by law gender equality, many Terran females still believe that there is a conscious bias against them.
Physical characteristics: Trills are a species very much like average humanoids, with one rather important distinction: some Trills (about one in 1000 in Trill society) are joined with a symbiont, which is a worm-like creature with lifespan measured in centuries. When a host is joined with a symbiont, they share their experiences and become one being. Contrary to mistaken popular belief, the symbiont does not "possess" the host and take over its personality; rather, the two are fairly much fused. The joined Trill take on the symbiont's knowledge and some of its personality, while the symbiont also gains the host's knowledge. Otherwise, Trills appear quite similar to other humanoids, except for blue/gray spots running down from the top of their heads down the sides of the head, the neck, and the rest of the body.
General tendencies: Unjoined Trills are pretty similar to Terrans in tendency (see above), perhaps a bit more carefree. However, some unjoined Trills, not accepted into the symbiosis program, become envious of joined Trills and could never quite recover from the denial. Joined Trills may sometimes display characteristics of several distinct personalities, but it is actually only the display of various facets of their joined personality.
Social structure: Trills have family structures fairly close to other humanoid species. However, the bond between Trill siblings is probably stronger than most species. In any case, there is an important prohibition on societal relations between joined Trills: joined Trills whose prior hosts had a certain familial relationship cannot continue that relationship in future lives. Violation of this rule leads to the death of the symbiont at the time the current host dies. This offense is known as reassociation.
Physical characteristics: Vulcans are somewhat taller than the average humanoid, while weighing slightly less than average. Unlike most humanoids, Vulcan blood is copper-based and and green. Therefore, instead of slight pink color, Vulcan skin is slightly green. Vulcans also have pointed ears. These characteristics they share with Romulans (see separate non-Federation culture lecture). Vulcans have extensive mental abilities, including limited telepathy, ability to share minds with others, and the ability to render others unconscious via the use of the Vulcan nerve pinch. Vulcans are a very logical race and are not normally emotional, and are highly intelligent. Vulcans are also a physically advanced race, stronger and quicker than most humanoid species. Vulcans have high tolerance for heat, but slightly less than average tolerance for cold. Vulcans live for about 250-300 years.
General tendencies: As mentioned above, Vulcans are very logical, and would think in logical terms. Therefore, they sometimes have difficulty understanding other people's decisions based on emotion. Vulcans are also extreme protectors of peace and abhor violence unless it is logically necessary.
Social structure: Vulcans have arranged marriages, where the mates are joined telepathically at age 7. At their age of maturity (varying from the late 20s to the early 40s depending on individual), a Vulcan male will experience pon farr -- or an urge to return to Vulcan to mate, and his mate will sense this and prepare for the marriage. Vulcan couples mate every 7 years. Vulcan children are born emotional -- but far less emotional than children of other species, and they learn logic at a fast speed. Vulcan marriages last for life, but they may remarry after the mate's death.
Physical characteristics: Tellarites are of above average humanoid height, and weigh much higher than average humanoids. They are hairy, and have long, circular noses that extend from their faces.
General tendencies: Tellarites are generally knowledgable, but are highly argumentative and can get very loud and boisterous while arguing.
Thanks to Lt. Teryl_Nellis who wrote up all the info for the races :)